So….fundamental camera shots. There are a few basic things you need to master about types of camera shots. Really, when you think about it, there’s not actually a lot you can physically do with the camera. No matter what position you place your camera in, it will be doing one of these fundamental shots.
Wide Shot: Generally called an “establishing shot” because it is wide enough that we can visually identify the surroundings of the subject
Medium Shot: If a person, for example, usually from the chest up.
Close Up: If a person, just the head.
Pan Left: Turning the camera left
Pan Right: Turning the camera right
Tilt Up: Tipping the camera up
Tilt Down: Tipping the camera down.
Dolly: Moves camera to, away from, or parallel to the subject
Jib: Camera is mounted on a balanced crane that provides a wide range of motion in any direction
Zoom In: Use telephoto controls to make the image appear closer.
Zoom Out: Use telephoto controls to make the image appear farther away.
Trucking: Matching movement of the camera with the subject so that the subject stays in the same position on screen, but the background is changing.
Rack Focusing: Focusing between near and far objects. Helps to create depth-of-field.
Steadicam / Flycam: Handheld or harness devices that allow for POV or human-like movement.
Sliding: Camera is mounted on a slider which allows the camera to move from side to side.
These are pretty much the only things you can do with a camera, but how you employ them artistically is what makes your video look professional.
When deciding camera movement, ask yourself if it’s really necessary. Everything that the camera does should be deliberate and help to visually tell the story of the script. Too much camera movement, movement at the wrong time, or highly-exaggerated movement will be a distraction. You don’t want to ever do anything to distract viewers from the message of the film. Don't create a camera movement just because you can. That comes across as gimmicky and unnecessary.
There are many video tutorials available online that can demonstrate these shots for you as well as show you ways to make them more creative.
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